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The IK Code, or impact rating, is a coding system that indicates the degree protection provided by enclosures for electrical equipment against external mechanical impacts. The IK Code is based on the international standards IEC 62262 and IEC 60068-2-75, which describe how the impact test should be carried out on enclosures.

An engineer team of MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) from United States, had been developed a paper-thin speaker that can be pasted on any surface, making it an active audio signal source, through a minimum energy quantity that is capable to reproduce high quality sounds. 

The cable of Facebook and Microsoft is the largest submarine infrastructure that does not belong to the consortium of telephone operators, it opens the market to a new era of communication and it is controlled by commercial superstructures that are outside the local legislation of countries to which affects


 

There are currently more than 350 submarine cables spread all over the world. Only about 20 extend under the Atlantic Ocean. Traditionally, it is the telecommunication companies that have been in charge of laying cables, everything that keeps them under their control and ownership. Then, these operators, in almost all cases of public companies that were privatized in the 90s, rent the access to the cable to the Internet operators, who have to respect principles like the one of Net Neutrality. This situation has begun to change.

 

Since 2010, Google has been provider of free and high speed Internet access in small areas of USA; this is Google Fiber “a different kind of Internet”. Meanwhile Facebook has gone further towards with drones and its own satellites to reach the difficult points such as sub-Saharan Africa with its controversial project Internet.org.

 

Google, Facebook, Microsoft and Amazon – the cloud owner of Netflix, Drop box and the Internet’s most popular services – collect and store more and more data, increasing their power and influence over what we do, are and know on the Net with help of several monitoring mechanisms.

 

We currently have over 1.000 million meters of submarine cable, although apparently not enough. We have two projects like the connection of Los Angeles to Hong Kong and Google and Facebook, or MAREA; that is going to join Virginia with Bilbao, this project is carried out by Microsoft and Facebook.

 

This is the complete list, with Google at the top, including cables under construction:

 

Google (43.000 km)

                Tannat (co-owner, 2.000 km, Brazil-Uruguay, 2017)

                Junior (owner, 390 km, Brazil, 2017)

                FASTER (co-owner, 11.629 km, USA – China, 2016)

                Monet (co-owner, 10.556 km, USA – Brazil, 2016)

                Southeast Asia Japan Cable (co-owner, 8.900 km, Japan – Singapore, 2013)

                Unity (co-owner, 9.620 km, USA – Japan, 2010)

 

Microsoft

                MAREA (co-owner, 6.600km, USA – Spain, 2017)

                New Cross Pacific Cable System (co-owner, 13.618 km, USA – China, 2017)

                AEConnect (main owner, 5.522 km, USA – Ireland, 2016)

                Hibernia Express (main owner, 4.600 km, Canada – United Kingdom, 2015)

 

Facebook (17.000 km)

                MAREA (co-owner, 6.600 km, USA – Spain, 2017)

                Asia Pacific Gateway (co-owner, 10.400 km, Japan – Singapore, 2016)

 

Amazon (10.000 km)

                Hawaiki (main owner, 10.200 km, USA – Australia, 2018)

 

Marea

 

It is a submarine cable of 6.600 km that goes through the Atlantic with Virginia and Bilbao at the ends. The cable will start operating at the end of 2017 with the direct support of Telxius, a subsidiary company of Telefonica, and it will transport 260 Terabit per second, more data than any created to the date.

 

It will transport exclusively the huge amount of data that Microsoft and Facebook will produce in the next 25 years, allowing to control at low cost the quality and quantity of traffic passing through. This is his property right.

 

Marea announces the progressive transformation of Internet, from a general and open network of networks to a conglomerate of super-specialized networks in traffic to Google, Facebook, Microsoft and other players with sufficient power, portfolio and influence to build that type of the cables.

 

FROM LOS ANGELES TO HONG KONG

 

Pacific Light Data Communication, which is subsidiary of China’s Soft Power Technology, will be the responsible for launching this $400 million project, which is scheduled to enter into operation in 2018. The aim of this new development will be a decrease in latency and a broad band of Facebook and Google users within the Asia-Pacific region.

 

The cable will have a length of 12.800 kilometers and a speed of up to 120 Tbps, this through five pairs of fiber capable of providing a bandwidth of up to 24 tbps. The cable will connect Los Angeles with Hong Kong becoming the largest capacity and speed of the Pacific Ocean, a record that currently owns to Google with its FASTER cable. Its capacity in five fiber pairs is so that other companies, which participate in the investment, have their own portion of cable to maintain their private traffic.

 

What about satellites?

 

The international calls, messages that we send, and transmissions that are made on the Internet, run through those submarine cables that we have not almost in our mind, since they are not in sight, nor are they usually news. The 99% of transoceanic communications are made there, achieving a speed up to eight times higher than expected with the satellite network. The satellite can be disturbed by a typhoon, even rain, while the cable rests “quiet” on the seabed, and positions itself as a more reliable and faster infrastructure.

 

As modern as the satellite communication may seem, submarine cables start to win the game with the appearance of fiber optics. New cabling technologies allowed for the transmission of large amounts of data with very low latency.

 

How are submarine cables made?

 

The fiber optic cable for which data travels through is even thinner than one of the many USB cables we use at home. The final thickness is doe to successive layers of protection, waterproofing and padding. This is the structure of a typical transoceanic fiber cable. Underneath several insulating layers and a thick tangle of braided fibers of galvanized steel and plastic, we find a copper tube through which the electric current flows. The cable itself does not need current, but every 80 kilometers, it is installed small capsules with amplifiers that are responsible for reinforcing the optical signal of the cable. These amplifiers need electricity to run, and that current comes through the copper tube.

 

This video shows how the cable is made to withstand the incredible pressures of the ocean flow.

  

 

  


Possible laboratory tests (Source: Ineltec)

 

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Source

 

Puerto, K. (2017). 1.000 millones de metros de cable submarino son los responsables de que tengas Internet en casa. [online] Xataka.com. Available at: https://www.xataka.com/historia-tecnologica/1-000-millones-de-metros-de-cable-submarino-son-los-responsables-de-que-tengas-internet-en-casa [Accessed 25 Jan. 2017].

 

eldiario.es. (2017). Cables submarinos: la nueva frontera del poder de las telecomunicaciones. [online] Available at: http://www.eldiario.es/cultura/tecnologia/Cables_submarinos-internet-facebook-google-microsoft_0_522148182.html [Accessed 25 Jan. 2017].

 

20minutos.es - Últimas Noticias. (2017). Así son los cables submarinos por los que viaja internet - 20minutos.es. [online] Available at: http://www.20minutos.es/noticia/2940262/0/cables-submarinos-viaja-internet/ [Accessed 25 Jan. 2017].Z

 

Picture

 

http://www.submarinecablemap.com/. (2017). Submarine Cable Map. [online] Available at: http://www.submarinecablemap.com/#/ [Accessed 25 Jan. 2017].

 

Video

 

YouTube. (2017). A Journey To The Bottom Of The Internet. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H9R4tznCNB0 [Accessed 25 Jan. 2017].

A manned trip to Mars won’t be like that made by Apollo 11 to the Moon in 1969 – where Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. spent a few hours on the satellite before coming back home


 

Going to Mars means spending a month on a surface with extreme temperatures and in an atmosphere that does not provide adequate protection for high energy radiations.

 

What economic, lightweight and do not turn shelters into dark caves material can protect humans?

 

For the NASA experts there is only one: ice. This was the conclusion reached by NASA experts together with designers, architects and academics who met last week at the NASA research center in Langley, Virgina, USA, to create a sustainable home concept for the Red planet.

 

“After a day dedicated to identify needs, goals and difficulties; we were able to assess many outlandish and ridiculous ideas to come up with an ice house design as the ingenious solution,” said Langley Kevin Vipavetz engineering chief said.

 

The “Martian Ice House” is an inflame dome covered with a layer of ice.

 

Lightweight and translucent

 

This allows it to be light and easy to assemble by robots that – little by little – will fill with water the chambers that make up the ice sheet that will protect the first astronauts.

 

Water would be extracted from many areas of the planet with abundant ice water just underneath the surface.

 

What is “Space Brain”, the phenomenon that can make unsuccessful the manned missions to Mars?

 

In addition, due to the water can become fuel for Martian vehicles, this structure also serves as a storage tank. The advantage of being translucent is that they will not have the feeling of being a cave. Since water is composed of hydrogen, it is –according to experts- an excellent material to protect against the galactic cosmic rays.

 

These rays are one of the biggest hazards facing humans on Mars, as they can penetrate the skin and cells of the body, which carries a greater risk of developing cancer or radiation-related disease.

 

Further to providing the necessary protection, an ice house has the advantage of allowing the passage of light; this will help humans to not feel like in a cave and not affect its biological clock.

 

“All the materials they have selected are translucent, so the outside light can pass and give the impression that they are in a house, not in a cave”, it is read in NASA site.

 

The challenge now is to choose the rest of the materials that support during years the extreme conditions in the Martian atmosphere and calculate the amount of water that is extracted from the furrow to create that shield ice protector.

 

 

 

  


Possible laboratory tests (Source: Ineltec)

 

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FUENTE:

BBC Mundo. (2017). El ingenioso (y si lo piensas no tan sorprendente) material con el que la NASA quiere construir sus casas en Marte - BBC Mundo. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-38489592 [Accessed 19 Jan. 2017].

IMAGE:

BBC Mundo. (2017). El ingenioso (y si lo piensas no tan sorprendente) material con el que la NASA quiere construir sus casas en Marte - BBC Mundo. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-38489592 [Accessed 19 Jan. 2017].

VIDEO:

YouTube. (2017). NASA Reveals Plans for 'Ice Homes' on Mars. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-61flnmubz0 [Accessed 19 Jan. 2017].

The industry seeks new niches of interest with the home as a central consumer hub


 

At the CES, the custom of using celebrities as a claim to launch products or promote the benefits of the sector is still alive. Shaquille O’Neal was one of the featured speakers and they are seen further times when women were used as a claim in different positions. The inclusion of women profiles and minority is one of the major challenges facing creators of software, hardware and online services.

After a week of competition to capture the attention of visitors, these are the lines of the product that during 2017 will try to get the portfolio and consumer attention. As always, prices and specific release dates were scarce. A lot of show but few reliable data.

 

Transport

 

Ford was a pioneer in attending the CES. Marcos Campos, its CEO, was advised by Bill Gates more than 10 years ago. Since then, they have not failed; they have made the rest of Detroit manufacturers go their way. The company that invented the assembly line predicts that the car of the future will not be owned, but will be by subscription. In 2021 the autonomous model also, without driver, will be a reality. BMW, for the first time, allowed seeing one of its sedans that will work thanks to artificial intelligence instead of having a human driver.

 

The tendency to leave the gasoline goes until competitions  

 

Tuesday night, Faraday Future, presented in the 2016 edition and with Chinese capital, shoed its first intelligent and fully electric model. The FF91 can save $5.0000 but it is unknown the delivery date or final price. It is known that is faster than any sport car, of gasoline, or the current Tesla vehicles. Mercedes thinks of a hybrid transport system which combines her vans with Matternet drones, one startup born at Singularity University, co-founded by the Latin Paola Santana. Honda has joined the wave with what they called a NeuV (New urban vehicle) a futuristic two-seater that remembers to the model without steering wheel or pedals of Google, Asian touch with the integration of cities around the world. The guideline is to offer small and agile vehicles in city and to leave the once of bigger size for logistics companies or adventure trips.

The transport chapter is completed with bicycles, from the ludic and sporting ones, increasingly lighter, to the urban assisted by electric motor and more security. India and China are the most common origins of almost all models.

 

Televisions

 

As expected, televisions have become one of the great protagonists of the CES. This event in Las Vegas uses every year to mark the trend: here, it was started talking about 4K and OLED screens. On this occasion, the Edition has been marked by a design aspect: the thickness. The battle began with the South Korean companies LG and Samsung the first day and the Chinese Xiaomi joint the following day. In this competition, LG became winner with a TV thinner than a credit card, of 2,57millimeters, the OLED W TV. In price issues, Xiaomi has been unmarked so it has announced a 55-inch Device for less than $1.500. All of them share common traits: they have the brains of television in an external bar and they have a clear commitment with the sound (Dolby Atmos in the case of LG and Xiaomi). 

 

 

Physical and virtual robots

 

This CES edition has had a female protagonist who was not even present: Alexa. The virtual assistant of Amazon has become one of the most named in this fair of Las Vegas. From Huawei to LG, big companies are betting to incorporate this artificial intelligence into their products. They have chosen his voice and his learning ability to improve the consumer experience. The same purpose has the robots of the South Korean company: Robot Airport Guide and Hub Robot, two devices (also with this female voice) of assistance that try to make life easier, although LG has not established when they will become available. The first, almost human size is designed to occupy large public spaces, especially airports. There it will be carry out welcome and management schedule tasks, gates and distances. In Hub’s case, this little robot is more similar to a cyber-pet. Its place is home, especially a connected home. It is designed to be able to handle the vacuum cleaner, over or air conditioner. In addition to other simple assistance tasks such as projecting videos, make calls or point reminders.

 

Cell pones

 

Apple maintains its policy of not attending any fair except the events organized by them. The Asian pavilion kept its usual horn of plenty of cases, batteries and accessories for iPhone and iPad, but without the creativity and impact of other years. Android reigns most frequently with more slack. Huawei, with Mate 9 as the most powerful CES mobile, Honor with 6X, ZTE with the new Blazey Asus that debuts Qualcomm processor, have been the prelude to the Mobile World Congress in late February in Barcelona. Both Samsung and LG took the opportunity to renew the mod-range. In the absence of major launches, the mobiles are confirmed as the central nucleus of home control. It will serve as a television schedule, shopping center for the fridge, a control for thermostats, lights and any kind of automation at home.

 

Virtual reality, augmented and merged

 

The virtual reality is consolidated and transformed into CES 2017. Throughout 2016, it has been settled the most demanded options of Samsung with Gear and Facebook with Oculus and it has been appeared other news as Day Dream of Google. Further to, the augmented reality has taken a leap with games (simple, but successful) like Pokémon Go, which shows the essence of this technology: to incorporate virtual elements in our reality. But this 2017 bets go further. We will not only to introduce ourselves to a virtual world, not to add new elements to ours, but to make a mixture. It is known as merged reality and promises to create a much more immersive feeling. Intel has presented its Alloy project as a model and reference for this technology. It is still being incorporated enhancements (to release the second version over 2017), the company’s CEO, Brian Krzanich has presented this technology as an open platform in which other creators of virtual and augmented reality content can be incorporated, such as Samsung, Amazon, Facebook and Google.

 

Beauty

 

With its own area in CES, beauty technology seeks to emerge in an environment still very controlled by health appliances. In addition, the typical wearables of activity, sleep, calories or heart rate control (which are still the most demanded), CES have shown other devices that also seek to make a dent. From the “magic” mirror that analyzes the face (the conditions of the skin, spots, wrinkles, pores…) to a smart comb which studies the composition of hair and what type of treatments should be used to improve it.

  


Possible laboratory tests (Source: Ineltec)

 

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Source

Rosa Jiménez Cano, B. (2017). Coches autónomos, televisores planos y robots, los triunfadores de CES 2017. [online] EL PAÍS. Available at: http://tecnologia.elpais.com/tecnologia/2017/01/07/actualidad/1483758488_053010.html [Accessed 9 Jan. 2017].

Image

Rosa Jiménez Cano, B. (2017). Coches autónomos, televisores planos y robots, los triunfadores de CES 2017. [online] EL PAÍS. Available at: http://tecnologia.elpais.com/tecnologia/2017/01/07/actualidad/1483758488_053010.html [Accessed 9 Jan. 2017].

The sensor that measures blood sugar levels

Friday, 30 January 2015 12:13

Researchers from the University of California have designed a sensor which uses a mild electrical current to measure glucose levels.

 

This system may represent a great progress for diabetics to avoid the painful pricks in the finger that they must suffer every day.

 

The system come in a fully flexible format, like a temporary tattoo and completely painless.

The invention has been successfully tested in patients between 20 and 40 years old. According to the results, the sensors have done measurements with more accuracy than the traditional method.

 

Currently, researchers are working to make this sensor gets the ability to send this information directly to the patient’s doctor in real time or to store it in the cloud.

 

The world of sensors is revolutionizing the market, connectivity of objects we use everyday with data bases is here.

 

 


 

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Sources:

http://www.muyinteresante.es/innovacion/medicina/articulo/un-tatuaje-temporal-mide-los-niveles-de-azucar-en-sangre-791421924543

http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/news/temporary-tattoo-measures-glucose-without-needle

3D printers made with electronic rubbish

Friday, 05 December 2014 12:07

Today in the world, there are many types of 3D printers that work with several materials, from polymers that are used by the ones more conventional to 3D food printers (Foodini) or cement to make houses within 24 hours.

 

These printers are the lastest technology of many companies that use it to make pieces and by this way, speed up the work.

 

 

¿Do you imagine to be able to create your own 3D printer of electronic re-used components?

 

Don’t imagine more, in the world, it has been already developed several 3D printers manufactured with electronic wastes. A user from the webpage (www.instructables.com) has done a publication where it is detailed the steps to follow to build a 3D printer made of an 80% electronic re-used components and with less than 100 dollars.

 

Below, the 3D printer video working on:

 

 

 

The objective of this project is not only to build a 3D low-cost printer, but it also serves to educate people of the real problem we have with the electronic waste, where 80 to 85% of electronic products have been thrown away in landfills and incinerators where can release certain toxic substances in the air and only a 12,5% of these wastes are recicled at the moment.

 

In Lomé, Togo’s capital a place where computer, printers, scanners remains fetch up which are thrown away by industrialized countries; a system designer has also developed a 3D printer, designed and made from the electronic wastes.

 


 

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Sources:

http://atombit.es/impresora-3d-fabricada-basura

http://www.lanacion.com.ar/1695050-llegan-las-impresoras-3d-economicas-y-hechas-con-basura-electronica

http://www.instructables.com/id/eWaste-60-3DPrinter/#step1

https://www.dosomething.org/facts/11-facts-about-e-waste